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Presidents Pro Tempore of the Texas Senate, 1846 - present


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History of 15th-26th | History of 27th-Present | History of Temporary Elections & Designations


1st-14th Legislatures (1846-1875)

Before 1876, there was no constitutional requirement for electing a Senate President Pro Tem at the beginning and close of each session. Instead, Art. V, Sec. 13 of the 1845 Texas Constitution provided that:

"Whenever the government shall be administered by the lieutenant governor, or he shall be unable to attend as president of the Senate, the Senate shall elect one of their own members as president for the time being. [...] If the lieutenant governor shall...die, resign, or be absent from the State during the recess of the legislature, it shall be the duty of the secretary of State to convene the Senate for the purpose of choosing a president for the time being."

The Senate Rules of the 2nd Legislature further specified that if the Lieutenant Governor did not "attend to preside", the Senate would elect a "President for the time being" (President pro tempore). Such elections occurred on a case-by-case basis, usually prompted by the absence of the Lieutenant Governor, and often carried over into subsequent called sessions.


1st Legislature, 1846
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Feb 16, 1846 - May 13, 1846)
Edward Burleson 2/16/1846 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor caused by the as-yet undeclared election. Senator Burleson's tenure was extended by overlooked election returns.1

2nd Legislature, 1847-1849
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Dec 13, 1847 - Mar 20, 1848)
Edward Burleson 12/21/1847 Election prompted by absence of Lieutenant Governor Horton while he attended the gubernatorial inauguration.

3rd Legislature, 1849-1851
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 5, 1849 - Feb 11, 1850)
Edward Burleson 12/20/1849
First Called Session
(Aug 12, 1850 - Sep 6, 1850)
Edward Burleson This session opened with Senator Burleson already presiding as President Pro Tem.
Second Called Session
(Nov 18, 1850 - Dec 3, 1850)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor Greer presided every day.

4th Legislature, 1851-1853
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 3, 1851 - Feb 16, 1852)
Edward Burleson 11/10/1851
Jesse Grimes 12/30/1851 Elected following the death of President Pro Tem Burleson on 12/26/1851.
1st Called Session
(Jan 10, 1853 - Feb 7, 1853)
Jesse Grimes This session opened with Senator Grimes already presiding as President Pro Tem.

5th Legislature, 1853-1855
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 7, 1853 - Feb 13, 1854)
Dr. Marion DeKalb Taylor 11/9/1853 Lieutenant Governor Henderson succeeded Governor Bell on 11/23/1853 upon Bell's resignation to fill the vacant U.S. Congress seat, which created a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor. Senator Taylor presided over the Senate until the inauguration of Lieutenant Governor Dickson on 12/21/1853, at which point Taylor resigned to Dickson the office of President of the Senate.
Guy Morrison Bryan 2/9/1854 Elected "for the balance of session".

6th Legislature, 1855-1857
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 5, 1855 - Feb 4, 1856)
Jesse Grimes 11/6/1855
Adjourned Session
(Jul 7, 1856 - Sep 1, 1856)
Jesse Grimes A President Pro Tem is mentioned in the journal but not named; since another election was not held, it can be assumed that Senator Grimes continued in the role.

7th Legislature, 1857-1859
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 2, 1857 - Feb 16, 1858)
Dr. Marion DeKalb Taylor 11/3/1857
Samuel Maverick 2 2/11/1858 Elected in the absence of the President and President Pro Tem.

8th Legislature, 1859-1861
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 7, 1859 - Feb 13, 1860)
Jesse Grimes 11/12/1859
1st Called Session
(Jan 21, 1861 - Feb 9, 1861)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor Clark presided every day.
Adjourned Session
(Mar 18, 1861 - Apr 9, 1861)
Jesse Grimes Lieutenant Governor Clark succeeded Governor Houston upon Houston's resignation due to the state's secession from Union, creating a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor as of 3/16/1861. The session was called to order by Senator Grimes presiding as President Pro Tem.

9th Legislature, 1861-1863
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 4, 1861 - Jan 14, 1862)
Robert Guinn 11/4/1861 Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 11/7/1861, and the absence of President Pro Tem Grimes, who had not been re-elected to his Senate seat, the session was called to order by Senator Guinn, who was then elected Senate President Pro Tem.
1st Called Session
(Feb 2, 1863 - Mar 7, 1863)
Robert Guinn A President Pro Tem is mentioned by title but not by name in the Senate Journal text, and is specifically identified as Senator Guinn only in Appendix I (see List of the Names, &c., of Members and Officers of the Senate of the Ninth Legislature, First Called Session)

10th Legislature, 1863-1866
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Nov 2, 1863 - Dec 16, 1863)
Robert Guinn 11/2/1863 Elected at opening of session, in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Crockett.
1st Called Session
(May 9, 1864 - May 28, 1864)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor Stockdale presided every day.
2nd Called Session
(Oct 17, 1864 - Nov 15, 1864)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor Stockdale presided every day.

11th Legislature, 1866-1870
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Aug 6, 1866 - Nov 13, 1866)
Robert Guinn 8/6/1866 Lieutenant Governor Stockdale became acting governor on 6/12/1865, when Governor Murrah fled Austin upon the fall of the Confederacy, creating a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor until Lieutenant Governor Jones' inauguration on 8/9/1866. Session opened with Senator Guinn presiding as President Pro Tem; Senator Guinn was then "declared by acclamation" President Pro Tem of the Senate later in the day on 8/6/1866.
Robert Guinn 8/30/1866 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Jones.
George Burney 11/8/1866 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Jones and President Pro Tem Guinn; as "President pro tem".

12th Legislature, 1870-1873
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Provisional Session
(Feb 8, 1870 - Feb 24, 1870)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor J.W. Flanagan presided every day.
First Called Session
(Apr 26, 1870 - Aug 15, 1870)
Donald Campbell 4/27/1870 The session was called to order by the Secretary of State, due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by J.W. Flanagan's election to the U.S. Senate. Senator Campbell was elected "President of the Senate for the time being" on the second day of session.
W.H. Parsons 5/5/1870 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of President Pro Tem Campbell.
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1871 - May 31, 1871)
Donald Campbell This session opened with Senator Campbell already presiding as President of the Senate.
A.J. Fountain 3 3/30/1871 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of President Pro Tem Campbell.
Adjourned Session
(Sep 12, 1871 - Dec 2, 1871)
Donald Campbell This session opened with Senator Campbell already presiding as President of the Senate.
Webster Flanagan 10/30/1871 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of President Pro Tem Campbell; elected as "President pro tem during the illness of President Campbell."
Webster Flanagan 11/13/1871 Elected following the death of President Pro Tem Campbell on 11/6/1871.

13th Legislature, 1873-1874
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1873 - Jun 4, 1873)
Webster Flanagan Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor, this session opened with Senator Webster Flanagan already presiding as President of the Senate. Flanagan resigned from this position on the second day of session.
Edward B. Pickett 1/15/1873 Following Flanagan's resignation and due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor, Pickett was elected "President of the Senate for the time being".

14th Legislature, 1874-1876
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1874 - May 4, 1874)
John Ireland 1/13/1874 Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of President Pro Tem Pickett, who had not been re-elected to his Senate seat, this session was called to order by the Secretary of the Senate. Senator Ireland was elected President Pro Tem, and presided until Lieutenant Governor Hubbard's inauguration on 1/15/1874, at which point Ireland resigned this office.
James Dillard 2/3/1874 Senator Dillard was asked by Lieutenant Governor Hubbard to act as presiding officer in his absence; Dillard stated "that he would prefer the Senators would elect a presiding officer", and the Senate then elected Dillard.
James Dillard 2/4/1874 Due to the continued absence of Lieutenant Governor Hubbard, Senator Dillard was again elected "to act as presiding officer during the day".
2nd Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1875 - Mar 15, 1875)
John Ireland 2/15/1875 Lieutenant Governor Hubbard was "excused indefinitely, on account of sickness in his family", and Senator Ireland elected as "President pro tem of the Senate, until the return of the President".

15th-26th Legislatures (1876-1900)

Beginning with the 15th Legislature, the revised Texas Constitution of 1876 called for a Senate President Pro Tem election at the "beginning and close of each session, and at such other times as may be necessary".

In practice, for the next twenty-five years the Senate held elections at the beginning and close of regular sessions only. With the sole exception of the 22nd First Called Session, there were no President Pro Tem elections held outside of regular sessions from the 15th through the 26th Legislatures. The elections at the close of regular sessions were described as "for the ensuing two years", "for the ensuing term", "for the ensuing vacation", etc., showing that the Senate deliberately held Senate President Pro Tem elections only during regular sessions, and considered the closing election of a regular session valid until the start of the next biennial legislature.


15th Legislature, 1876-1879
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Apr 18, 1876 - Aug 21, 1876)
Wells Thompson 4/19/1876 Lieutenant Governor Hubbard called the session to order. Senator Thompson was elected on the second day of session.
No election held at close of session.

16th Legislature, 1879-1881
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1879 - Apr 24, 1879)
Wells Thompson Lieutenant Governor Hubbard succeeded Governor Coke on 12/1/1879 when Coke resigned to enter U.S. Senate, creating a vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor. At the opening of 16th Legislature, Thompson called the Senate to order as "President pro tem". Thompson was still the constitutionally elected president pro tem, despite not having been re-elected to his Senate seat, which was held by his successor Samuel C. Patton during the 16th Legislature. Thompson presided as Senate President Pro Tempore from 1/14/1879 until 1/21/1879, when he retired from the chair following Lieutenant Governor Sayers' inauguration.
Edwin E. Hobby 1/24/1879 Elected on the tenth day of session.
Leonidas Storey 4/19/1879 Hobby declined to be re-elected; Storey was elected for the close of session.
1st Called Session
(Jun 10, 1879 - Jul 9, 1879)
Leonidas Storey No election held at beginning of session; Senator Storey continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

17th Legislature, 1881-1883
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1881 - Apr 1, 1881)
John Gooch 1/12/1881 Lieutenant Governor Sayers called the session to order. Senator Gooch was elected on the second day of session.
Marion Martin 3/31/1881 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 6, 1882 - May 5, 1882)
Marion Martin No election held at beginning of session; Senator Martin continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

18th Legislature, 1883-1885
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1883 - Apr 13, 1883)
Augustus W. Houston 1/9/1883 Elected at beginning of session.
Samuel B. Cooper, Sr. 4/13/1883 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Jan 8, 1884 - Feb 6, 1884)
Samuel B. Cooper, Sr. No election held at beginning of session; Senator Cooper continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

19th Legislature, 1885-1887
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1885 - Mar 31, 1885)
William R. Shannon 1/13/1885 Elected at beginning of session.
Constantine Kilgore 3/31/1885 Elected at close of session.

20th Legislature, 1887-1889
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1887 - Apr 4, 1887)
William H. Pope 1/11/1887 Elected at beginning of session.
Caleb Garrison 3/9/1887 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and President Pro Tem Pope; as "President for the day, elected in consequence of sickness of President and President pro tem".
Temple Houston 3/16/1887 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and President Pro Tem Pope; "for the day".
J.O. Terrell 3/18/1887 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and President Pro Tem Pope; "for the day".
J.O. Terrell 3/21/1887 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and President Pro Tem Pope; "for the day".
John Woods 4/4/1887 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 16, 1888 - May 15, 1888)
John Woods No election held at beginning of session; Senator Woods continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

21st Legislature, 1889-1891
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1889 - Apr 6, 1889)
Henry McDonald 1/8/1889 Elected at beginning of session.
William Henry Burges, Sr. 4/6/1889 Elected at close of session.

22nd Legislature, 1891-1893
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1891 - Apr 13, 1891)
William Henry Burges, Sr. At the opening of 22nd Legislature, Burges called the Senate to order as "president pro tem of the senate and acting lieutenant governor of the state" due to the illness of Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and the absence of Lieutenant Governor-elect Pendleton. Burges was still the constitutionally elected president pro tem, despite not having been re-elected to his Senate seat, which was held by his successor William Clemens during the 22nd Legislature. Burges presided as Senate President Pro Tem until Lieutenant Governor Pendleton's inauguration on 1/20/1891.
J. W. Cranford 1/22/1891 Elected following the inauguration of Lieutenant Governor Pendleton and the end of Senator Burges' tenure as President Pro Tem.
E. G. Maetze 4/13/1891 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Mar 14, 1892 - Apr 12, 1892)
Louis N. Frank 3/14/1892 Elected at the beginning of session due to the death of President Pro Tem Maetze on 10/12/1891.
Robert H. Burney 4/12/1892 Elected at close of session.

23rd Legislature, 1893-1895
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1893 - May 9, 1893)
J. G. Kearby 1/10/1893 Elected at beginning of session.
E. A. Atlee 5/6/1893 Elected at close of session.

24th Legislature, 1895-1897
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1895 - Apr 30, 1895)
Perry J. Lewis 1/9/1895 Lieutenant Governor Crane called the session to order. Senator Lewis was elected on the second day of session.
J. D. Woods 4/30/1895 Elected at close of session "for ensuing two years".
1st Called Session
(Oct 1, 1895 - Oct 7, 1895)
No President Pro Tem was elected during this session; Lieutenant Governor Jester presided as President every day.
No election held at close of session.

25th Legislature, 1897-1899
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1897 - May 21, 1897)
J. B. Dibrell 1/12/1897 Elected at beginning of session.
J. R. Gough 5/21/1897 Elected at close of session, "for ensuing two years". Gough was elected after midnight on the 101st day of session, which began on 5/20/1897 but adjourned on 5/21/1897.
1st Called Session
(May 22, 1897 - Jun 20, 1897)
J. R. Gough No election held at beginning of session; Senator Gough continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

26th Legislature, 1899-1901
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1899 - May 27, 1899)
R. N. Stafford 1/11/1899 Lieutenant Governor Jester called the session to order. Senator Stafford was elected on the second day of session.
W. W. Turney 5/25/1899 Elected at close of session "for ensuing two years".
1st Called Session
(Jan 23, 1900 - Feb 21, 1900)
W. W. Turney No election held at beginning of session; Senator Turney continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

27th Legislature (1901) - Present

Called Sessions:

The 27th Legislature first addressed whether the Senate would hold President Pro Tem elections during called sessions. On September 4, 1901, at the close of the First Called Session, "Senator Miller moved that the Senate proceed to the election of a President Pro Tempore as is provided for in the Constitution at the end of each session of the Legislature. Senator Dibrell raised the point of order that the authority did not exist for electing a President Pro Tempore at a called session." The point of order was overruled, and a Senate President Pro Tem was elected at the close of a called session — for only the second time in 25 years.

During the Senate President Pro Tem election at the beginning of the 28th Regular Session, the matter was definitively settled. The Senate Journal records that:

"Senator Davidson of DeWitt stated he felt the Senate ought to record itself definitely on Section 6 of the Constitution, which states the Senate "shall, at the beginning and close of each session" elect a President Pro Tempore. Senator Douglass moved that the Senate elect a President Pro Tempore.... The Chair declared Senator Davidson of Galveston duly and constitutionally elected President Pro Tempore." 4

This made the 28th Legislature the first since the 1876 Constitution (excepting the 22nd) to hold Senate President Pro Tem elections at the beginning and close of all sessions — both regular and called — and it marks the start of the standard practice of doing so for all following sessions.


"Ad Interim":

The 27th Legislature is additionally notable for the first Senate Journal use of the term ad interim in connection with a Senate President Pro Tem. The journal of September 11, 1901, during the 27th Second Called Session, describes: "The Secretary announced that under the Constitution in the absence of both the President and the President Pro Tempore, authority was invested in him to preside until a President Pro Tempore Ad Interim had been elected, and declared nominations for the office to be in order."

The Latin phrase ad interim literally translates as "in the time between", but can also mean "temporarily" or "in the meantime". The Texas Legislature has used ad interim to signify all three, at various points in its history. The present-day Senate, for example, elects a "President Pro Tem Ad Interim" at the close of session, who serves during the interim until the next session. In contrast, the 27th Legislature used ad interim to label the temporary office which only existed until the return of the President or regularly-elected President Pro Tem, and did not use any special terminology for the close-of-session election.

Elections for a President Pro Tem ad interim in the 16 years following the 27th Legislature continued to signify a temporary election held due to the absence of both presiding officers. The last instance of this meaning can be found in the Second Called Session of the 35th Legislature. During the same time, descriptions of the close-of-session elections were evolving:

  • "for the ensuing term" (30th, 31st, 32nd, 33rd)
  • "for the ensuing vacation" / "for the vacation term" / "for the vacation term of the Senate" (31st, 34th, 35th)
  • "for the closing of the session" / "for the closing session" / "President Pro Tem.— Election of (close of session)" (31st, 32nd, 33rd)
  • "provided for by the Constitution at the close of the session" (32nd)
  • "for the interim preceding the organization of the ___ Session of the ___ Legislature" / "during the interim preceding another session" (35th, 36th, 38th)
  • "for the interim between the ___ Session of the ___ Legislature and the reconvening of another session" / "for the interim between this time and the reconvening of another session" (35th, 36th)
  • "for the final session" (37th)

The process of electing or designating a temporary Senate President Pro Tem changed in the 32nd Legislature, which contributed to the shift in the usage of ad interim described above. Read more about the history of temporary President Pro Tem elections and designations.

Toward the end of this period, ad interim began to be used to describe the close-of-session election of a Senate President Pro Tem. The 35th, 36th, 37th, and 38th Legislatures saw the first uses of "President Pro Tem Ad Interim" to describe the election of a Senate President Pro Tem who serves during the interim between sessions. After the 38th Regular Session, this usage became the norm: a President Pro Tem was elected at the beginning of each session, and a President Pro Tem Ad Interim was elected at the close of each session.


27th Legislature, 1901-1903
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1901 - Apr 9, 1901)
Barry Miller 1/8/1901 Elected at beginning of session.
George D. Neal 4/9/1901 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Aug 6, 1901 - Sep 4, 1901)
George D. Neal No election held at beginning of session; Senator Neal continued as President Pro Tem.
D. W. Odell 9/4/1901 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Sep 5, 1901 - Oct 1, 1901)
D. W. Odell No election held at beginning of session; Senator Odell continued as President Pro Tem.
A. B. Davidson 9/11/1901 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Browning and President Pro Tem Odell; as "President Pro Tempore Ad Interim".
C. L. Potter 9/25/1901 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Browning and President Pro Tem Odell; as "President Pro Tempore ad interim".
No election held at close of session.

28th Legislature, 1903-1905
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1903 - Apr 1, 1903)
A. B. Davidson
1/13/1903 Elected at beginning of session.
John G. Willacy 3/30/1903 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Neal and President Pro Tem Davidson; as "President Pro Tem. ad interim".
R. V. Davidson 4/1/1903 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 2, 1903 - May 1, 1903)
R. V. Davidson 4/2/1903 Elected at beginning of session.
George W. Savage 5/1/1903 Elected at close of session.

29th Legislature, 1905-1907
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1905 - Apr 15, 1905)
W. A. Hanger 1/10/1905 Elected at beginning of session.
John G. Willacy 1/23/1905 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Neal and President Pro Tem Hanger; as "President Pro Tem. ad interim".
John G. Willacy 4/15/1905 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 15, 1905 - May 14, 1905)
John G. Willacy 4/15/1905 Elected at beginning of session.
John G. Willacy 5/13/1905 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Mar 26, 1906 - Apr 3, 1906)
J. J. Faulk 3/26/1906 Elected at beginning of session.
W. C. McKamy 4/3/1906 Elected at close of session.

30th Legislature, 1907-1909
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1907 - Apr 12, 1907)
S. P. Skinner 1/8/1907 Elected at beginning of session.
McDonald Meachum 4/12/1907 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 12, 1907 - May 11, 1907)
A. P. Barrett 4/12/1907 Elected at beginning of session.
B. F. Looney 5/11/1907 Elected at close of session.

31st Legislature, 1909-1911
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1909 - Mar 13, 1909)
J. M. Terrell 1/12/1909 Elected at beginning of session.
Q. U. Watson 3/13/1909 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Mar 13, 1909 - Apr 11, 1909)
Charles L. Brachfield 3/13/1909 Elected at beginning of session.
E. I. Kellie 4/11/1909 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Apr 12, 1909 - May 11, 1909)
W. O. Murray 4/12/1909 Elected at beginning of session.
A. J. Harper 5/11/1909 Elected at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(Jul 19, 1910 - Aug 17, 1910)
D. M. Alexander 7/19/1910 Elected at beginning of session.
H. B. Terrell 8/17/1910 Elected at close of session.
4th Called Session
(Aug 18, 1910 - Sep 10, 1910)
E. G. Senter 8/18/1910 Elected at beginning of session.
F. C. Weinert 9/9/1910 Elected at close of session.

32nd Legislature, 1911-1913
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1911 - Mar 11, 1911)
Claude B. Hudspeth 1/10/1911 Elected at beginning of session.
Tom W. Perkins 3/11/1911 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Jul 31, 1911 - Aug 29, 1911)
C. V. Terrell 7/31/1911 Elected at beginning of session
Earle B. Mayfield 8/29/1911 Elected at close of session.

33rd Legislature, 1913-1915
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1913 - Apr 1, 1913)
O. S. Lattimore 1/14/1913 Elected at beginning of session.
W. J. Greer 4/1/1913 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Jul 21, 1913 - Aug 19, 1913)
E. H. Carter 7/21/1913 Elected at beginning of session.
V. A. Collins 8/19/1913 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Aug 24, 1914 - Sep 22, 1914)
V. A. Collins Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by the resignation of Lieutenant Governor Mayes on 5/6/1914, Senator Collins called the session to order as President Pro Tem.
Robert L. Warren 8/24/1914 Elected at beginning of session.
James R. Wiley 9/11/1914 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of the President Pro Tem; as "President Pro Tem. Ad Interim".
F. M. Gibson 9/22/1914 Elected at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(Sep 23, 1914 - Oct 22, 1914)
F. M. Gibson Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor, Senator Gibson called the session to order as President Pro Tem.
W. C. Morrow
9/23/1914 Elected at beginning of session.
C. W. Taylor 10/3/1914 Elected due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of the President Pro Tem; as "President Pro Tem. Ad Interim".
Claude B. Hudspeth appointed 10/15/1914 Senator Hudspeth was appointed 10/15/1914 to perform the duties of the Chair during the absence of the President Pro Tem, as designated by President Pro Tem Morrow; he was referred to as the "Acting President Pro Tem.".
Q. U. Watson 10/21/1914 Elected at close of session.

34th Legislature, 1915-1917
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1915 - Mar 20, 1915)
Q. U. Watson Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 1/15/1915, Watson called the Senate to order as President Pro Tem. Watson was still the constitutionally elected president pro tem, despite not having been re-elected to his Senate seat, which was held by his successor Paul D. Page during the 34th Legislature. Watson presided only until Senator Nugent's election as President Pro Tem.
Clinton Nugent 1/12/1915 Elected at beginning of session.
W. J. Townsend, Jr. 3/20/1915 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 29, 1915 - May 28, 1915)
James R. Wiley 4/29/1915 Elected at beginning of session.
Dr. I. E. Clark 5/28/1915 Elected at close of session.

35th Legislature, 1917-1919
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1917 - Mar 21, 1917)
John M. Henderson 1/9/1917 Elected at beginning of session.
F. M. Gibson 3/5/1917 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Hobby and President Pro Tem Henderson; as "President Pro Tem. ad interim".
Ed Westbrook 3/21/1917 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Apr 18, 1917 - May 17, 1917)
Will D. Suiter 4/18/1917 Elected at beginning of session.
John H. Bailey 4/27/1917 Elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Hobby and President Pro Tem Henderson; as "President Pro Tem. ad interim".
Claude B. Hudspeth 5/17/1917 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Aug 1, 1917 - Aug 30, 1917)
Lon A. Smith 8/3/1917 Lieutenant Governor Hobby called the session to order and presided for the first two days, which did not achieve a quorum. Senator Smith was elected on the third day of session.
W. L. Dean 8/6/1917 Elected due to the extended absence of President Pro Tem Smith, who was "absent from the State"; as "President Pro Tem. ad interim".
J. C. McNealus 8/30/1917 Elected at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(Aug 31, 1917 - Sep 29, 1917)
J. C. McNealus Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by Lieutenant Governor Hobby serving as acting governor during the James Ferguson impeachment proceedings 8/25/1917 to 9/25/1917, Senator McNealus called the session to order as President Pro Tem.
W. L. Dean 8/31/1917 Elected at beginning of session.
W. A. Johnson 9/29/1917 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore ad interim".
4th Called Session
(Feb 26, 1918 - Mar 27, 1918)
W. A. Johnson Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by Lieutenant Governor Hobby succeeding Governor Ferguson upon Ferguson's removal from office on 9/25/1917, Senator Johnson called the session to order as "Acting Lieutenant Governor".
E. A. Decherd, Jr. 2/26/1918 Elected at the beginning of session.
R. M. Johnston 3/27/1918 Elected at close of session.

36th Legislature, 1919-1921
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1919 - Mar 19, 1919)
R. M. Johnston Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 1/21/1919, Senator Johnston called the session to order as President Pro Tem.
J. J. Strickland 1/14/1919 Elected at beginning of session.
George W. Dayton 3/19/1919 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(May 5, 1919 - May 9, 1919)
J. M. Alderdice 5/5/1919 Elected at beginning of session.
C. R. Buchanan 5/9/1919 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Jun 23, 1919 - Jul 22, 1919)
Paul D. Page 6/23/1919 Elected at beginning of session.
George M. Hopkins 7/22/1919 Elected at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(May 20, 1920 - Jun 18, 1920)
A. C. Buchanan 5/20/1920 Elected at beginning of session.
Ed Westbrook 6/18/1920 Elected at close of session.
4th Called Session
(Sep 21, 1920 - Oct 2, 1920)
Walter D. Caldwell 9/21/1920 Elected at beginning of session.
Martin Faust 10/2/1920 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore ad interim".

37th Legislature, 1921-1923
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1921 - Mar 12, 1921)
Paul D. Page 1/11/1921 Elected at beginning of session.
Charles R. Floyd 3/12/1921 Elected at close of session.
1st Called Session
(Jul 18, 1921 - Aug 16, 1921)
John H. Bailey 7/18/1921 Elected at beginning of session.
Archie Parr 8/16/1921 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Aug 17, 1921 - Aug 25, 1921)
James H. Woods 8/17/1921 Elected at beginning of session.
Harry Hertzberg 8/24/1921 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore ad interim".

38th Legislature, 1923-1925
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1923 - Mar 14, 1923)
R. M. Dudley 1/9/1923 Elected at beginning of session.
H. L. Darwin appointed 1/16/1923 Senator Darwin was appointed 1/16/1923 to perform the duties of the Chair during the absence of the President Pro Tem, as designated by President Pro Tem Dudley.
H. L. Darwin again appointed 2/1/1923 Senator Darwin was again appointed 2/1/1923 to perform the duties of the Chair during the absence of the President Pro Tem, as designated by President Pro Tem Dudley.
John H. Bailey appointed 2/16/1923 Senator Bailey was appointed 2/16/1923 to perform the duties of the Chair during the absence of the President Pro Tem and Lieutenant Governor Davidson on 2/19 and 2/20, as designated by President Davidson.
Woodville J. Rogers 2/24/1923 Due to the absence of the Lieutenant Governor Davidson and the regularly elected President Pro Tem, and the lack of a formal designation by either presiding officer, Rogers was elected "president pro tem to preside until the return of the regular presiding officers".
W. E. Watts 3/14/1923 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore ad interim".
1st Called Session
(Mar 15, 1923 - Mar 15, 1923)
Dan S. McMillin 3/15/1923 Elected at beginning of session.
Edgar E. Witt 3/15/1923 Elected at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Apr 16, 1923 - May 15, 1923)
Charles A. Murphy, Sr. 4/16/1923 Elected at beginning of session.
Dr. I. E. Clark 5/15/1923 Elected at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(May 16, 1923 - Jun 14, 1923)
H. L. Lewis 5/16/1923 Elected at beginning of session.
I. D. Fairchild 6/14/1923 Elected at close of session.

39th Legislature, 1925-1927
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1925 - Mar 19, 1925)
A. J. Wirtz 1/13/1925 Elected at beginning of session.
W. H. Bledsoe 3/19/1925 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Sep 13, 1926 - Oct 8, 1926)
J. G. Strong 9/13/1926 Elected at beginning of session.
John Davis 10/8/1926 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

40th Legislature, 1927-1929
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1927 - Mar 16, 1927)
A. E. Wood 1/11/1927 Elected at beginning of session.
T. J. Holbrook 3/16/1927 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 9, 1927 - Jun 7, 1927)
Tomas G. Pollard 5/9/1927 Elected at beginning of session.
R. S. Bowers 6/7/1927 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

41st Legislature, 1929-1931
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1929 - Mar 14, 1929)
Walter C. Woodward 1/8/1929 Elected at beginning of session.
W. R. Cousins 3/14/1929 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Apr 22, 1929 - May 21, 1929)
Eugene Miller 4/22/1929 Elected at beginning of session.
Margie E. Neal 5/21/1929 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Jun 3, 1929 - Jul 2, 1929)
Pink L. Parrish 6/3/1929 Elected at beginning of session.
Gus Russek 7/2/1929 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Jul 3, 1929 - Jul 20, 1929)
Gus Russek 7/3/1929 Elected at beginning of session.
Dr. Benjamin Franklin Berkeley 7/16/1929 Ad Interim (elected at close of session); elected 7/16/1929 but sworn in 7/17/1929.
4th Called Session
(Jan 20, 1930 - Feb 18, 1930)
Edgar E. Witt 1/20/1930 Elected at beginning of session.
Julian P. Greer 2/18/1930 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
5th Called Session
(Feb 19, 1930 - Mar 20, 1930)
W. A. Williamson 2/19/1930 Elected at beginning of session.
Joe M. Moore 3/20/1930 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

42nd Legislature, 1931-1933
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1931 - May 23, 1931)
Carl C. Hardin 1/13/1931 Elected at beginning of session.
J. W. E. H. Beck 5/23/1931 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 14, 1931 - Aug 12, 1931)
Tom A. DeBerry 7/14/1931 Elected at beginning of session.
C. C. Small 8/12/1931 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Sep 8, 1931 - Oct 3, 1931)
W. E. Thomason 9/8/1931 Elected at beginning of session.
J. W. Stevenson 10/3/1931 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Aug 30, 1932 - Sep 21, 1932)
J. J. Loy 8/30/1932 Elected at beginning of session.
Charles S. Gainer 9/21/1932 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
4th Called Session
(Nov 3, 1932 - Nov 12, 1932)
Oliver Cunningham 11/3/1932 Elected at beginning of session.
H. Grady Woodruff 11/12/1932 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

43rd Legislature, 1933-1935
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1933 - Jun 1, 1933)
Walter Woodul 1/10/1933 Elected at beginning of session.
Nat Patton 5/31/1933 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Sep 14, 1933 - Oct 13, 1933)
George Clark Purl 9/14/1933 Elected at beginning of session.
W. K. Hopkins 10/13/1933 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Jan 29, 1934 - Feb 27, 1934)
Frank H. Rawlings 1/29/1934 Elected at beginning of session.
Margie E. Neal 2/27/1934 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Aug 27, 1934 - Sep 25, 1934)
Cecil Murphy 8/27/1934 Elected at beginning of session.
Joe M. Moore 9/25/1934 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
4th Called Session
(Oct 12, 1934 - Nov 10, 1934)
Walter C. Woodward
10/12/1934 Elected at beginning of session.
Archie Parr 11/10/1934 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

44th Legislature, 1935-1937
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1935 - May 11, 1935)
K. M. Regan 1/8/1935 Elected at beginning of session.
John S. Redditt 5/11/1935 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Sep 16, 1935 - Oct 15, 1935)
Will M. Martin 9/16/1935 Elected at beginning of session.
Jim Neal 10/15/1935 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Oct 16, 1935 - Nov 14, 1935)
W. R. Poage 10/16/1935 Elected at beginning of session.
Wilbourne B. Collie 11/14/1935 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Sep 28, 1936 - Oct 27, 1936)
Roy Sanderford 9/28/1936 Elected at beginning of session.
Tom A. DeBerry 10/27/1936 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

45th Legislature, 1937-1939
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1937 - May 22, 1937)
Will D. Pace 1/12/1937 Elected at beginning of session.
Claud Westerfeld 5/22/1937 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 27, 1937 - Jun 25, 1937)
Olan Van Zandt 5/27/1937 Elected at beginning of session.
Claude Isbell 6/25/1937 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Sep 27, 1937 - Oct 26, 1937)
Allan Shivers 9/27/1937 Elected at beginning of session.
Ben G. Oneal 10/26/1937 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

46th Legislature, 1939-1941
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1939 - Jun 21, 1939)
Weaver Moore 1/10/1939 Elected at beginning of session.
Albert Stone 6/21/1939 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

47th Legislature, 1941-1943
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1941 - Jul 3, 1941)
Clay Cotten 1/14/1941 Elected at beginning of session.
Rudolph Weinert 7/3/1941 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Sep 9, 1941 - Sep 19, 1941)
Rudolph Weinert Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by Lieutenant Governor Stevenson succeeding Governor O'Daniel upon O'Daniel's swearing-in as a U.S. Senator on 8/4/1941, Senator Weinert called the session to order as "President Pro Tempore of the Senate ad interim".
E. Harold Beck 9/9/1941 Elected at beginning of session.
Henry L. Winfield 9/19/1941 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

48th Legislature, 1943-1945
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1943 - May 11, 1943)
Henry L. Winfield Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 1/19/1943, Senator Winfield called the session to order as President Pro Tem Ad Interim.
Vernon Lemens 1/12/1943 Elected at beginning of session. Senator Lemens served as President Pro Tem in 1943 concurrently with military service as first lieutenant at Camp Hood. He was granted numerous leaves of absence from the Senate.
Fred Mauritz 5 3/10/1943 Senator Mauritz was designated by Lemens on 3/9/1943 "to act as presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the President and the President pro tempore". Designations in this manner were intended for temporary tenure as President Pro Tem, so in light of Lemens' extended absences, an election was held on 3/10/1943 "for a President pro tempore to serve until the return of President pro tempore Lemens."
A. M. Aikin, Jr. 5/11/1943 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

49th Legislature, 1945-1947
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1945 - Jun 5, 1945)
George Moffett 1/9/1945 Elected at beginning of session.
William Graves 6/5/1945 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

50th Legislature, 1947-1949
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1947 - Jun 6, 1947)
Ben Ramsey 1/14/1947 Elected at beginning of session.
T. C. Chadick 6/6/1947 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

51st Legislature, 1949-1951
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1949 - Jul 6, 1949)
Kyle Vick 1/11/1949 Elected at beginning of session.
George C. Morris 7/5/1949 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jan 31, 1950 - Mar 1, 1950)
George C. Morris Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created by Lieutenant Governor Shivers succeeding Governor Jester upon Jester's death on 7/11/1949, Senator Morris called the session to order as President Pro Tem.
Grady Hazlewood 1/31/1950 Elected at beginning of session.
Wardlow Lane 3/1/1950 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

52nd Legislature, 1951-1953
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1951 - Jun 8, 1951)
Wardlow Lane Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 1/16/1951, Senator Lane called the session to order as Acting Lieutenant Governor and President Pro Tem Ad Interim.
Pat M. Bullock 1/9/1951 Elected at beginning of session.
Howard A. Carney 6/8/1951 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

53rd Legislature, 1953-1955
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1953 - May 27, 1953)
Rogers Kelley 1/13/1953 Elected at beginning of session.
Jimmy Phillips 5/27/1953 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Mar 15, 1954 - Apr 13, 1954)
Gus J. Strauss 3/15/1954 Elected at beginning of session.
Dorsey B. Hardeman 4/13/1954 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

54th Legislature, 1955-1957
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1955 - Jun 7, 1955)
Crawford Martin 1/11/1955 Elected at beginning of session.
Neveille Colson 6/7/1955 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

55th Legislature, 1957-1959
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1957 - May 23, 1957)
Ottis E. Lock 1/8/1957 Elected at beginning of session.
Carlos C. Ashley, Sr. 5/23/1957 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Oct 14, 1957 - Nov 12, 1957)
J. Searcy Bracewell, Jr. 10/14/1957 Elected at beginning of session.
J. Searcy Bracewell, Jr. 11/12/1957 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Nov 13, 1957 - Dec 3, 1957)
W. T. 'Bill' Moore 11/13/1957 Elected at beginning of session.
Jep Fuller 12/3/1957 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

56th Legislature, 1959-1961
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1959 - May 12, 1959)
George Parkhouse 1/13/1959 Elected at beginning of session.
Rudolph Weinert 5/12/1959 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 18, 1959 - Jun 16, 1959)
Jarrard Secrest 5/18/1959 Elected at beginning of session.
Jarrard Secrest 6/16/1959 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Jun 17, 1959 - Jul 16, 1959)
Andrew J. 'Andy' Rogers 6/17/1959 Elected at beginning of session.
Andrew J. 'Andy' Rogers 7/16/1959 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Jul 17, 1959 - Aug 6, 1959)
Abraham 'Chick' Kazen 7/17/1959 Elected at beginning of session.
Frank Owen III 8/6/1959 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

57th Legislature, 1961-1963
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1961 - May 29, 1961)
Ray Roberts 1/10/1961 Elected at beginning of session.
David Ratliff 5/29/1961 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 10, 1961 - Aug 8, 1961)
Preston Smith 7/11/1961 Lieutenant Governor Ramsey called the session to order. Senator Smith was elected on the second day of session.
Bruce Reagan 8/8/1961 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Aug 10, 1961 - Aug 14, 1961)
Doyle Willis 8/11/1961 Lieutenant Governor Ramsey called the session to order. Senator Willis was elected on the second day of session.
Bruce Reagan 8/14/1961 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Jan 3, 1962 - Feb 1, 1962)
Bruce Reagan Due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor created when Lieutenant Governor Ramsey accepted an appointment as railroad commissioner on 9/18/1961, Senator Reagan called the session to order as President Pro Tem Ad Interim.
Charles F. Herring 1/3/1962 Elected at beginning of session.
Culp Krueger 2/1/1962 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

58th Legislature, 1963-1965
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1963 - May 24, 1963)
Culp Krueger Due to the continuing vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor prior to the inauguration on 1/15/1963, Senator Krueger called the session to order as President Pro Tem Ad Interim.
Martin Dies, Jr. 1/8/1963 Elected at beginning of session.
Louis Crump 5/24/1963 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

59th Legislature, 1965-1967
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1965 - May 31, 1965)
Tom Creighton 1/12/1965 Elected at beginning of session.
A. R. 'Babe' Schwartz 5/31/1965 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Feb 14, 1966 - Feb 23, 1966)
A. R. 'Babe' Schwartz 2/14/1966 Elected at beginning of session.
Galloway Calhoun 2/23/1966 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

60th Legislature, 1967-1969
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1967 - May 29, 1967)
W. N. 'Bill' Patman 1/10/1967 Elected at beginning of session.
Ralph Hall 5/29/1967 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 4, 1968 - Jul 3, 1968)
James Bates 6/4/1968 Elected at beginning of session.
D. Roy Harrington 7/3/1968 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

61st Legislature, 1969-1971
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1969 - Jun 2, 1969)
Don Kennard 1/14/1969 Elected at beginning of session.
Murray Watson, Jr. 6/2/1969 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 28, 1969 - Aug 26, 1969)
H. J. 'Doc' Blanchard 7/28/1969 Elected at beginning of session.
J. P. Word 8/26/1969 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Aug 27, 1969 - Sep 9, 1969)
J. P. Word 8/27/1969 Elected at beginning of session.
Criss Cole 9/9/1969 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

62nd Legislature, 1971-1973
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1971 - May 31, 1971)
Jack Hightower 1/12/1971 Elected at beginning of session.
W. E. 'Pete' Snelson 5/31/1971 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 1, 1971 - Jun 4, 1971)
W. E. 'Pete' Snelson 6/1/1971 Elected at beginning of session.
W. E. 'Pete' Snelson 6/4/1971 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Mar 28, 1972 - Mar 30, 1972)
Barbara Jordan 3/28/1972 Elected at beginning of session.
Barbara Jordan 3/30/1972 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Jun 14, 1972 - Jul 7, 1972)
Chet Brooks 6/14/1972 Elected at beginning of session.
Wayne Connally 7/7/1972 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
4th Called Session
(Sep 18, 1972 - Oct 17, 1972)
Wayne Connally 9/18/1972 Elected at beginning of session.
Charles Wilson 10/17/1972 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

63rd Legislature, 1973-1975
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1973 - May 28, 1973)
Oscar Mauzy 1/9/1973 Elected at beginning of session.
Ike Harris 5/28/1973 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Dec 18, 1973 - Dec 20, 1973)
Max Sherman 12/18/1973 Elected at beginning of session.
Jim Wallace 12/20/1973 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

64th Legislature, 1975-1977
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1975 - Jun 2, 1975)
Glenn Kothmann 1/14/1975 Elected at beginning of session.
H. Tati Santiesteban 6/2/1975 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

65th Legislature, 1977-1979
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1977 - May 30, 1977)
Betty Andujar 1/11/1977 Elected at beginning of session.
Don Adams 5/30/1977 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 11, 1977 - Jul 21, 1977)
Peyton McKnight 7/11/1977 Elected at beginning of session.
Peyton McKnight 7/21/1977 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore Ad Interim Principalis".
Raul L. Longoria 7/21/1977 Elected at close of session; as "President Pro Tempore Ad Interim Secundus".
2nd Called Session
(Jul 10, 1978 - Aug 8, 1978)
Raul L. Longoria 7/10/1978 Elected at beginning of session.
Bill Meier 8/8/1978 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

66th Legislature, 1979-1981
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 1979 - May 28, 1979)
Bill Meier 1/9/1979 Elected at beginning of session.
Bill Braecklein 5/28/1979 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

67th Legislature, 1981-1983
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1981 - Jun 1, 1981)
John Traeger 1/13/1981 Elected at beginning of session.
Jack Ogg 6/1/1981 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 13, 1981 - Aug 11, 1981)
Jack Ogg 7/13/1981 Elected at beginning of session.
Walter Mengden 8/11/1981 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(May 24, 1982 - May 28, 1982)
Walter Mengden 5/24/1982 Elected at beginning of session.
Walter Mengden 5/28/1982 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Sep 7, 1982 - Sep 9, 1982)
John Wilson 9/7/1982 Elected at beginning of session.
John Wilson 9/9/1982 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

68th Legislature, 1983-1985
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 1983 - May 30, 1983)
Grant Jones 1/11/1983 Elected at beginning of session.
Lloyd Doggett 5/30/1983 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 22, 1983 - Jun 25, 1983)
Lloyd Doggett 6/23/1983 Lieutenant Governor Hobby called the session to order. Senator Doggett was elected on the second day of session.
Lloyd Doggett 6/25/1983 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Jun 4, 1984 - Jul 3, 1984)
Lindon Williams 6/4/1984 Elected at beginning of session.
Lindon Williams 7/3/1984 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

69th Legislature, 1985-1987
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1985 - May 27, 1985)
Ray Farabee 1/8/1985 Elected at beginning of session.
Carlos F. Truan 5/27/1985 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 28, 1985 - May 30, 1985)
Carlos F. Truan 5/28/1985 Elected at beginning of session.
Carlos F. Truan 5/30/1985 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Aug 6, 1986 - Sep 4, 1986)
Carlos F. Truan 8/6/1986 Elected at beginning of session.
Ed Howard 9/4/1986 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Sep 8, 1986 - Sep 30, 1986)
Carlos F. Truan 9/8/1986 Elected at beginning of session.
Carlos F. Truan 9/30/1986 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

70th Legislature, 1987-1989
top
Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 1987 - Jun 1, 1987)
Carl A. Parker 1/13/1987 Elected at beginning of session.
Roy Blake, Sr. 6/1/1987 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 2, 1987 - Jun 3, 1987)
Roy Blake, Sr. 6/2/1987 Elected at beginning of session.
Roy Blake, Sr. 6/3/1987 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Jun 22, 1987 - Jul 21, 1987)
Roy Blake, Sr. 6/22/1987 Elected at beginning of session.
Roy Blake, Sr. 7/21/1987 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

71st Legislature, 1989-1991
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1989 - May 29, 1989)
John N. Leedom 1/10/1989 Elected at beginning of session.
J. E. 'Buster' Brown 5/29/1989 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 20, 1989 - Jul 19, 1989)
J. E. 'Buster' Brown 6/20/1989 Elected at beginning of session.
J. E. 'Buster' Brown 7/19/1989 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Nov 14, 1989 - Dec 12, 1989)
Kent A. Caperton 11/14/1989 Elected at beginning of session.
Craig A. Washington 12/8/1989 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
Kent A. Caperton resumed 12/12/1989 Senator Washington was elected to serve in the US Congress. Upon the conclusion of Senator Washington's term in the Texas Senate, the Senate stated that Senator Caperton "would resume the office of President Pro Tempore Ad Interim".
3rd Called Session
(Feb 27, 1990 - Mar 28, 1990)
Hugh Q. Parmer 2/27/1990 Elected at beginning of session.
No election held at close of session.
4th Called Session
(Apr 2, 1990 - May 1, 1990)
Bob McFarland 4/25/1990 Lieutenant Governor Hobby called the session to order. Senator McFarland was elected on the tenth day of session.
Bob McFarland 5/1/1990 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
5th Called Session
(May 2, 1990 - May 30, 1990)
Bob McFarland 5/3/1990 Lieutenant Governor Hobby called the session to order. Senator McFarland was elected on the second day of session.
Bob McFarland 5/30/1990 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
6th Called Session
(Jun 4, 1990 - Jun 7, 1990)
Bob McFarland 6/4/1990 Elected at beginning of session.
Bob McFarland 6/7/1990 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

72nd Legislature, 1991-1993
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 1991 - May 27, 1991)
Robert J. 'Bob' Glasgow 1/8/1991 Elected at beginning of session.
Don Henderson 5/27/1991 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 15, 1991 - Aug 13, 1991)
Don Henderson 7/15/1991 Elected at beginning of session.
Don Henderson 8/13/1991 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
2nd Called Session
(Aug 19, 1991 - Aug 25, 1991)
Don Henderson 8/19/1991 Elected at beginning of session.
Don Henderson 8/25/1991 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Jan 2, 1992 - Jan 8, 1992)
Bill Sims 1/2/1992 Elected at beginning of session.
Bill Sims 1/8/1992 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
4th Called Session
(Nov 10, 1992 - Dec 3, 1992)
John T. Montford 11/10/1992 Elected at beginning of session.
John T. Montford 12/3/1992 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

73rd Legislature, 1993-1995
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1993 - May 31, 1993)
John T. Montford 1/12/1993 Elected at beginning of session.
John Whitmire 5/31/1993 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

74th Legislature, 1995-1997
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 10, 1995 - May 29, 1995)
Gonzalo Barrientos 1/10/1995 Elected at beginning of session.
Ken Armbrister 5/29/1995 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

75th Legislature, 1997-1999
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 1997 - Jun 2, 1997)
Judith Zaffirini 1/14/1997 Elected at beginning of session.
Bill Ratliff 6/2/1997 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

76th Legislature, 1999-2000
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 12, 1999 - May 31, 1999)
Teel Bivins 1/12/1999 Elected at beginning of session.
Rodney Ellis 5/31/1999 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

77th Legislature, 2001-2002
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 2001 - May 28, 2001)
Chris Harris 1/9/2001 Elected at beginning of session.
Mike Moncrief 5/28/2001 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

78th Legislature, 2003-2004
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 14, 2003 - Jun 2, 2003)
Eddie Lucio 1/14/2003 Elected at beginning of session.
Jane Nelson 6/2/2003 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 30, 2003 - Jul 28, 2003)
Jane Nelson 6/30/2003 Elected at beginning of session.
No election held at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Jul 28, 2003 - Aug 26, 2003)
Jane Nelson No election held at beginning of session; Senator Nelson continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(Sep 15, 2003 - Oct 12, 2003)
Jane Nelson 9/16/2003 Lieutenant Governor Dewhurst called the session to order. Senator Nelson was elected on the second day of session.
No election held at close of session.
4th Called Session
(Apr 20, 2004 - May 17, 2004)
Jeff Wentworth 4/20/2004 Elected at beginning of session.
Jeff Wentworth 5/17/2004 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

79th Legislature, 2005-2006
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 2005 - May 30, 2005)
Florence Shapiro 1/11/2005 Elected at beginning of session.
Frank Madla 5/30/2005 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jun 21, 2005 - Jul 20, 2005)
Frank Madla 6/21/2005 Elected at beginning of session.
No election held at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Jul 21, 2005 - Aug 19, 2005)
Frank Madla 7/21/2005 Elected at beginning of session.
Frank Madla 8/16/2005 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
3rd Called Session
(Apr 17, 2006 - May 16, 2006)
Royce West 4/17/2006 Elected at beginning of session.
Royce West 5/15/2006 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

80th Legislature, 2007-2008
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 9, 2007 - May 28, 2007)
Mario Gallegos 1/9/2007 Elected at beginning of session.
John Carona 5/28/2007 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

81st Legislature, 2009-2010
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 2009 - Jun 1, 2009)
Robert Duncan 1/13/2009 Elected at beginning of session.
Troy Fraser 6/1/2009 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(Jul 1, 2009 - Jul 2, 2009)
Troy Fraser 7/1/2009 Elected at beginning of session.
No election held at close of session.

82nd Legislature, 2011-2012
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 11, 2011 - May 30, 2011)
Steve Ogden 1/11/2011 Elected at beginning of session.
Mike Jackson 5/30/2011 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 31, 2011 - Jun 29, 2011)
Mike Jackson 5/31/2011 Elected at beginning of session.
Mike Jackson 6/28/2011 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).

83rd Legislature, 2013-2014
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 8, 2013 - May 27, 2013)
Leticia Van de Putte 1/8/2013 Elected at beginning of session.
Craig Estes 5/27/2013 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).
1st Called Session
(May 27, 2013 - Jun 25, 2013)
Craig Estes 5/27/2013 Elected at beginning of session.
No election held at close of session.
2nd Called Session
(Jul 1, 2013 - Jul 30, 2013)
Craig Estes No election held at beginning of session; Senator Estes continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.
3rd Called Session
(Jul 30, 2013 - Aug 5, 2013)
Craig Estes No election held at beginning of session; Senator Estes continued as President Pro Tem.
No election held at close of session.

84th Legislature, 2015-2016
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Session
(dates)
Senate President Pro Tem Election Context
Regular Session
(Jan 13, 2015 - Jun 1, 2015)
Juan "Chuy" Hinojosa 1/13/2015 Elected at beginning of session.
Kevin Eltife 6/1/2015 Ad Interim (elected at close of session).


History of Temporary Elections and Designations

The evolution of the use of the term ad interim was accompanied by changes in the process of electing or designating a temporary Senate President Pro Tem.

Prior to the 15th Legislature, Senate President Pro Tem elections were held when the President of the Senate (the Lieutenant Governor) did not "attend to preside". It was not until the 1876 Constitution — which established the elections of a Senate President Pro Tem at the beginning and close of each session, with the intention that the President Pro Tem would be elected for the entire session — that the issue arose of what to do in the absence of both President and President Pro Tem.

The Senate Rules of the 15th through 32nd Legislatures provided only that the President (or President for the time being) "shall have the right to name a member to perform the duties of the Chair; but such substitution shall not extend beyond an adjournment." The rules did not specifically provide for the absence of both presiding officers, only quoted the Constitution that "the Senate shall, at the beginning and close of each session, and at such other times as may be necessary, elect one of its members President, pro tempore, who shall perform the duties of Lieutenant-Governor in any case of absence or disability of that officer, and whenever the said office of Lieutenant-Governor shall be vacant." Without specific procedures described, the methods of handling the absence of both presiding officers evolved over the subsequent years.

The first such absences can be found in the 20th Legislature, during which Lieutenant Governor Wheeler and Senate President Pro Tem Pope were both absent on several occasions. On the first day both were absent, a senator was "in the chair", presumably due to being named by one of the presiding officers. On the following day, in their continued absence, the Senate decided that "the rule prescribing that when a Senator is called to the chair, he is to occupy it only until an adjournment" required an election for a President Pro Tem in lieu of the senator previously named. Caleb Garrison was thus elected "President for the day, elected in consequence of sickness of President and President pro tem". Three more elections (see Temple Houston and J.O. Terrell) also specified that the election was for a President Pro Tem "for the day." When not himself absent, the regularly-elected President Pro Tem (Pope) presided in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor.

The 27th, 28th, and 29th Legislatures saw similar temporary elections of A. B. Davidson, C. L. Potter, and John G. Willacy. These elections referred to the temporary position as "President Pro Tem Ad Interim" for the first time.

The 32nd Legislature did not hold any elections in the absence of the President and President Pro Tem, but events during the Regular Session led to pertinent changes in the Senate Rules. The 32nd Senate initially voted to adopt the rules of the 31st Legislature. However, as session went on, the efforts of the Senate majority in favor of statewide prohibition were opposed by Lieutenant Governor Davidson. In an attempt to circumvent the delaying tactics of the anti-prohibitionists, the prohibitionist majority rescinded the previously adopted Senate Rules and adopted an amended version. The amended Rules preserved the right of the President to name a member to perform the duties of the Chair, but provided a new avenue for the removal of any Senator temporarily occupying the chair. This allowed the prohibitionists to remove any presiding Senator who might be trying to kill their constitutional amendment, and provided for the replacement of such a Senator with another member elected by the Senate — a "President Pro Tem ad interim", to preside until the return of the Lieutenant Governor or the regularly elected President Pro Tem.6

(Interestingly, while the present-day common practice of the Senate is to name the President Pro Tem regularly elected at the close of session the "President Pro Tem Ad Interim", the only usage in the Senate Rules of the phrase "ad interim" remains unchanged since the 32nd Legislature — referring to a President Pro Tem elected to replace a Senator designated as the Chair in the absence of the Lieutenant Governor and the regularly-elected President Pro Tem.7)

The 33rd Legislature further solidified the role and tenure of the regularly elected President Pro Tem versus a "President Pro Tem Ad Interim" elected in the absence of the President and President Pro Tem. Prior to the 33rd Second Called Session, Lieutenant Governor Mayes tendered his resignation, leaving the office vacant. In light of this vacancy, the absence of the President Pro Tem led to one temporary election in the Second Called Session (see James R. Wiley). Then, in the Third Called Session, at the first temporary election due to the vacancy in the office of Lieutenant Governor and the absence of the President Pro Tem (see C. W. Taylor), the question was raised whether the temporary election of a President Pro Tem superseded the regular election at the beginning of session. The matter was referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections to be settled in conjunction with the opinion of the Attorney General. The committee reported back that:

"President Pro Tempore Ad Interim is not a constitutional office, but is only an office created by the Senate, the function of which is to preside in the Senate during the absence of the regularly elected President Pro Tempore.... It being clearly contemplated by the rules of the Senate that the temporary absence of the President Pro Tempore does not vacate his office, and it being clearly not the intention of the Senate on the occasion of the election of Senator Taylor as President Pro Tempore Ad Interim to treat the office of President Pro Tempore as vacant, the fact that the Senate elected Senator Taylor to the office of President Pro Tempore Ad Interim could not have, and was not intended to have, any effect upon the tenure or authority of the elected President Pro Tempore."

Later in the 33rd Third Called Session, following the findings of the committee, President Pro Tem Morrow named Senator Hudspeth "to perform the duties of the Chair during my absence and until such time as I return, or such time as the Senate may exercise its right to elect some member in place of said Senator Hudspeth to perform said duties" (see Claude B. Hudspeth). The Senate acceded to the appointment. Hudspeth was referred to as the "Acting President Pro Tem."

The 34th Legislature did not have any need for a temporary President Pro Tem. At one point, President Pro Tem Nugent designated Bailey of DeWitt as President Pro Tem in his absence; however, Bailey's designation was rendered a moot point, since Lieutenant Governor Hobby was present and presiding every day of Nugent's absence. This instance only became significant later as "the form of the designation by the Lieutenant Governor or President Pro Tempore" in cases of their absence, per the 38th Senate Rules. It continued to be noted in the Senate Rules as the proper form of designation until amended by the 49th Legislature.

The 35th through 38th Legislatures saw the shift from using "ad interim" as a temporarily-elected President Pro Tem’s title, to the current practice of using "ad interim" to describe the close-of-session election of a President Pro Tem for the interim between sessions.

The 35th Regular, First Called Session, and Second Called Session each had a temporarily-elected/"ad interim" President Pro Tem election in the absence of the presiding officers. At the end of the 35th Third Called Session, however, Senator W. A. Johnson was elected at the close of session (for the interim) as the "President Pro Tempore ad interim of the Thirty-fifth Legislature to serve until the convening of another session." The 35th Fourth Called Session and 36th Regular through Fourth Called Sessions held no temporary elections. The close-of-session elections began to be described as "for the interim," and the 36th Fourth Called Session saw Senator Faust elected at the close as "President Pro Tem ad Interim". The 37th Legislature saw the same pattern: no temporary elections, and the close-of-session election in the final called session was for a "President Pro Tem ad interim".

The 38th Regular Session opened with the election of President Pro Tem Dudley. Dudley twice designated Senator H. L. Darwin to perform the duties of the chair in his absence; and Lieutenant Governor Davidson once appointed Senator John H. Bailey to perform the duties of the chair in the absence of both Davidson and Dudley. Senator Woodville J. Rogers was elected temporarily in the absence of both presiding officers, neither of whom had apparently provided for a replacement in their absence.

The 38th Legislature adopted its permanent rules with the annotation following section 6 (relating to the President Pro Tem) amended to add:

"In the absence of the Lieutenant Governor and the President Pro Tempore, it has been the practice in the Senate for either the Lieutenant Governor or President Pro Tempore to designate someone to serve in his absence. He may be administered the oath of office by the Secretary and may perform all the duties of the President Pro Tempore. (For the form of the designation by the Lieutenant Governor or President Pro Tempore, see Senate Journal, Regular Session, 34th Legislature, p. 146.)"

The 38th Regular Session closed with the election of Senator W. E. Watts as "President Pro Tempore ad interim", and the subsequent First, Second, and Third Called Sessions fell into the pattern that holds true in the present Senate: a President Pro Tem is elected at the beginning of each session, and a President Pro Tem Ad Interim is elected at the close of each session.

It is interesting to note that Woodville J. Rogers was Chair of the 38th Regular Session’s Senate Committee on Rules. He was elected in the absence of Lieutenant Governor Davidson and the regularly-elected President Pro Tem Dudley and due to the lack of a formal designation by either presiding officer, as "president pro tem to preside until the return of the regular presiding officers" on February 24, 1923, only two days before the adoption of the permanent rules "with such annotations as are necessary" on February 26. Aside from the exceptional election of Fred Mauritz in the 48th Legislature, Rogers’s is the last such temporary election of a President Pro Tem held by the Texas Senate.

The 48th Legislature saw the last significant change in Senate precedent relating to the President Pro Tem. At the beginning of the 48th Regular Session, Senator Vernon Lemens was regularly elected as President Pro Tem. However, since the United States was in the middle of World War II, Lemens was concurrently serving as a first lieutenant at Camp Hood during 1943. He was granted numerous leaves of absence from the Senate to perform his military duties. Lemens designated Senator Fred Mauritz "to act as presiding officer of the Senate in the absence of the President and the President pro tempore" on March 9, 1943. The following day, the Senate held an election "in accordance with Section 9 of Article III of the Constitution, to elect a President pro tempore to serve until the return of President pro tempore Lemens", and formally elected Mauritz to the office. When Lemens was present, he reclaimed the duties of President Pro Tem; in his absence, Mauritz covered the position.

These complications due to military service during World War II likely prompted the addition of an annotation to the 49th Senate Rules stating that:

"In the absence of both the Lieutenant Governor and President pro tempore for a short period of time, either of them may designate in writing a Senator to occupy the Chair, but in case the President pro tempore is compelled, for any reason, to be absent for an extended or indefinite period, the Senate elects another President pro tempore. For the form of the designation by the Lieutenant Governor or President pro tempore, see Senate Journal, Regular Session, 49th Legislature, page 515."


1 On February 17, 1846, the Senate and the House of Representatives met in joint session to count the votes for Governor and Lieutenant Governor, after which J. Pinckney Henderson was declared the duly elected Governor and N.H. Darnell was declared the duly elected Lieutenant Governor of the State of Texas. Lt. Governor-elect Darnell set February 23, 1846 as the day on which he would take the oath of office. On February 21, 1846, the legislature discovered that some election returns had not been counted. On February 23, Lt. Governor-elect Darnell declined to take office, and called on the Legislature to reconsider the election returns for Lieutenant Governor. On May 1, 1846, the House and Senate met in joint session to count the votes for Lieutenant Governor, and declared that Albert Clinton Horton had received the majority of the votes, and was the duly and constitutionally elected Lieutenant Governor. On May 2, 1846, Lt. Governor Horton took the oath of office. [return]

2 Members of the Texas Congress 1836-1845, Members of the Texas Legislature 1846-2005 lists Maverick as a President Pro Tem "Ad Interim". However, the Senate Journal never uses the phrase "Ad Interim" to describe his office. [return]

3 Members of the Texas Congress 1836-1845, Members of the Texas Legislature 1846-2005 lists Fountain's service as President Pro Tem during the Adjourned Session of the 12th Legislature (held September 12, 1871 to December 2, 1871). However, the Senate Journal (p. 555-557) shows that Fountain was elected March 30, 1870, during the Regular Session (held January 10, 1871 to May 31, 1871). [return]

4 Davidson of DeWitt was mistaken in his citation. The relevant section of the Constitution was Art. III Sec. 9. The same phrasing, however, was used in Section 6 of the 28th Senate Rules. [return]

5 Members of the Texas Congress 1836-1845, Members of the Texas Legislature 1846-2005 lists Mauritz as "Ad Interim". However, the 48th Senate Journal never uses the phrase "Ad Interim" to describe his office. Aikin, who was elected in the constitutionally-required election at the close of session, was given that title. [return]

6 See the 32nd Senate Journal, Regular Session, for the temporary rules adopted (p. 86-88), the rescinding and amending of the temporary rules (p. 112-113, 130-134), and the amended rules (p. 163). An editorial note first appearing in the Senate Rules adopted by the 49th Legislature after Rule 7 summarizes the political context: "This rule is one of several first adopted in 1911 as the result of the contest to submit a proposed constitutional amendment providing for State-wide prohibition. The proponents of the proposed Constitutional amendment, being a majority of the Senate, succeeded in having this rule and several others designed to prevent the Lieutenant Governor (who opposed the amendment) and any Senator occupying the Chair temporarily and the Senators opposing the proposed amendment from killing it by dilatory tactics. [return]

7 Senate Rules adopted by the 84th Legislature: "When such Senator is removed as aforesaid and the chair remains vacant, the Secretary shall call the Senate to order, and a President Pro Tempore ad interim shall be elected to preside until the Lieutenant Governor or a regularly elected President Pro Tempore shall appear and take the gavel." This is the only use of the words "ad interim" in the Senate Rules. [return]


Sources:

Senate Journals.

Members of the Texas Congress 1836-1845, Members of the Texas Legislature 1846-2005. [Austin, Tex.]: Senate Engrossing and Enrolling, Senate Reproduction, [2005]. Secretary of the Senate.