LRL Home - Points of Interest - Members of the Legislature

March 6, 2018 Primary Election Results

Peruse the results of the March 6, 2018, primary election for the Texas Legislature in our charts below, and see who will be on upcoming ballots for the primary runoff on May 22, 2018 (bolded) and the midterm election on November 6, 2018.


Note also that, due to the vacancy left in District 13 by former Rep. Leighton Schubert's resignation, a special election will be held on May 5, 2018. See a list of the candidates on the Secretary of State's website.



Kendall Scudder
Bob Hall
Shirley Layton
Robert Nichols
Meg Walsh
Charles Schwertner
David Romero
Paul Bettencourt
Mark Phariss
Angela Paxton
Gwenn Burud
Kelly Hancock
Beverly Powell
Konni Burton
Kirk Watson
George W. Hindman
John Whitmire
Randy Orr
Nathan Johnson
Don Huffines
Rita Lucido / Fran Watson
Joan Huffman
Royce West
Steven Kling
Donna Campbell
Kevin Lopez
Pat Fallon
Kel Seliger


House of Representatives

Gary VanDeaver
Bill Brannon
Dan Flynn
Lisa Seger
Cecil Bell Jr
Eston Williams
Stuart Spitzer / Keith Bell
Bill Liebbe
Cole Hefner
Matt Schaefer
Jay Dean
Wesley D. Ratcliff
Cody Harris / Thomas McNutt
Chris Paddie
Kimberly Emery
John Wray
Alec Johnson
Travis Clardy
Marianne Arnold
Kyle Kacal
Cecil Ray Webster, Sr.
Jill Wolfskill / Ben Leman
Josh Wilkinson
John Raney
Lorena Perez McGill
Steve Toth
Mike Midler
Will Metcalf
Michelle Ryan
John P. Cyrier
Fred Lemond
Ernest Bailes
Sherry Williams
James White
Stephen M. Wyman
Terry M. Wilson
Dade Phelan
Joe Deshotel
Amanda Jamrok
Mayes Middleton
John Y. Phelps
Greg Bonnen
Dennis Bonnen
L. Sarah DeMerchant
D.F. "Rick" Miller
Ron Reynolds
Meghan Scoggins
John Zerwas
James Presley
Ed Thompson
Robin Hayter
Geanie W. Morrison
Ryan Guillen
Todd Hunter
Laura Gunn
Justin Holland
Abel Herrero
Chris Hale
Oscar Longoria
Sergio Muñoz, Jr.
Rene O. Oliveira / Alex Dominguez
Eddie Lucio III
Armando "Mando" Martínez
Terry Canales
Bobby Guerra
Hilda Garza DeShazo
Richard Peña Raymond
Luis De La Garza
Dee Ann Torres Miller
J.M. Lozano
John D. Rodgers
John Kuempel
Rebecca Bell-Metereau / Erin Zwiener
Ken Strange
Jose "Chito" Vela / Sheryl Cole
Gabriel Nila
Vikki Goodwin / Elaina Fowler
Paul D. Workman
Donna Howard
Gina Hinojosa
Kyle Austin
Celia Israel
Eddie Rodriguez
James Talarico
Cynthia Flores
Stephanie Lochte Ertel
Andrew S. Murr
Kathy Richerson
Scott Cosper / Brad Buckley
Hugh D. Shine
Katherine Turner-Pearson
Charles "Doc" Anderson
Jason Rogers
Trent Ashby
DeWayne Burns
J.D. Sheffield
Mike Lang
Phil King
Valerie N. Hefner
Reggie Smith / Brent Lawson
Laura Haines
Tan Parker
Mat Pruneda / Andrew Morris
Lynn Stucky
Michelle Beckley
Ron Simmons
Sharon Hirsch
Matt Shaheen
Sarah Depew
Jeff Leach
Drew Springer
James Frank
Julie Luton
Scott Sanford
Sam Hatton
Stan Lambert
Drew Darby
Stephanie Phillips
Kyle Biedermann
Poncho Nevárez
Mary E. Gonzalez
Cesar J. Blanco
Evelina "Lina" Ortega
Joe Moody
Jeffrey Lane
Joe C. Pickett
Tracy King
Armando Gamboa
Brooks Landgraf
Spencer Bounds
Tom Craddick
Drew Landry
Dustin Burrows
Samantha Carrillo Fields
John Frullo
Jennifer Cantu
Phil Stephenson
Mike Purcell
John Smithee
Four Price
Ezekiel Barron
Ken King
Ray Ash
Candy Noble
Ramon Romero Jr.
Jeromey Sims
Stephanie Klick
Steve Riddell
Jonathan Stickland
Nancy Bean
Matt Krause
Finnigan Jones
Tony Tinderholt
Nicole Collier
Stephen A. West
Ryan E. Ray
Bill Zedler
Beth Llewellyn McLaughlin
Craig Goldman
Mica J. Ringo
Giovanni Capriglione
Michael Stackhouse
Charlie Geren
Eric Johnson
Chris Turner
Ana-Maria Ramos
Linda Koop
Rafael M. Anchia
Jerry Fortenberry
Jessica Gonzalez
Thresa "Terry" Meza
Rodney Anderson
Ramona Thompson
Jared Patterson
Victoria Neave
Deanna Maria Metzger / Joe Ruzicka
Joanna Cattanach
Morgan Meyer
Deshaundra Lockhart Jones / Carl Sherman
Toni Rose
Yvonne Davis
Brandy K. Chambers
Angie Chen Button
Rhetta Andrews Bowers
Jonathan Boos
John Turner
Lisa Luby Ryan
Julie Johnson
Matt Rinaldi
Trey Martinez Fischer
Fernando Padron
Philip Cortez
Michael Berlanga
Leo Pacheco
John Lujan
Roland Gutierrez
Barbara Gervin-Hawkins
Ronald Payne
Celina D. Montoya
Matt Beebe / Steve Allison
Claire Barnett
Lyle Larson
Diego Bernal
Ina Minjarez
Johnny S. Arredondo
Justin Rodriguez
Natali Hurtado
E. Sam Harless
Dan Huberty
Briscoe Cain
Alexander Jonathan Karjeker
Dennis Paul
Fred Infortunio
Tom Oliverson
Alma A. Allen
Syed S. Ali
Gina Calanni
Mike Schofield
Sandra G. Moore / Marty Schexnayder
Jim Murphy
Allison Lami Sawyer
Sarah Davis
Jon E. Rosenthal
Gary Elkins
John H. Bucy III
Tony Dale
Gene Wu
Adam Milasincic
Dwayne Bohac
Jarvis D. Johnson
Armando Lucio Walle
Senfronia Thompson
Harold V. Dutton Jr.
Ana Hernandez
Mary Ann Perez
Ruben Villarreal
Carol Alvarado
Shawn Nicole Thierry
Garnet F. Coleman
Thomas Wang
Jessica Cristina Farrar
Ryan T. McConnico
Hubert Vo
Michael Shawn Kelly
Valoree Swanson


--- indicates that the party did not run a candidate in that district

Members Not Returning, 86th Legislature

Below is a list of members (as of January 23, 2018) not returning to the 86th Texas Legislature in their current offices. Note that regardless of election outcomes, all of these legislators will keep their respective seats until January 2019, unless they resign earlier.


To learn more about who will be on the primary ballots, information about candidates by county is available on the Texas Secretary of State's filings by county page.



Rep. Cindy Burkett Running for Texas Senate
Rep. Byron Cook Retiring
Rep. Pat Fallon Running for Texas Senate
Rep. Helen Giddings Retiring
Rep. Larry Gonzales Retiring
Rep. Lance Gooden Running for U.S. Congress
Rep. Jason Isaac Running for U.S. Congress
Rep. Mark Keough Running for Montgomery County judge
Rep. Jodie Laubenberg Retiring
Rep. Larry Phillips Retiring
Rep. Kevin Roberts Running for U.S. Congress
Rep. Leighton Schubert Resigned effective 2/4/2018
Rep. Joe Straus Retiring
Sen. Van Taylor Running for U.S. Congress

Legislative Scorecards, 85th Legislature

Following each legislative session in Texas, some organizations create scorecards "grading" the performance of legislators. Scorecards typically focus on bills significant to a particular viewpoint or subject area.


The LRL tracks legislative scorecards as we find them to be a helpful research tool. Listed below are the 85th Legislature scorecards we have found thus far. 


Conservative Round Table of Texas


Empower Texans


Environment Texas


Equality Texas


Sierra Club – Lone Star Chapter


Texas Association of Business


Texas Right to Life


Texas Uniting for Reform & Freedom (TURF)


Texas Values Action


Young Conservatives of Texas


Cover image by Flickr user Jon Wiley / CC BY-NC 2.0.

Research Minute: Legislators and Leaders Resources

Seeking information about Texas’ elected leadership? The Legislators and Leaders section of our website compiles myriad resources to aid your research. You can…


Freshmen in the Texas Legislature

Every few years, we update our comparison across Legislatures of the percent of freshmen at the beginning of each regular session. Here's our first post from 2012 on the topic (which explains some of the reasons for unusually high numbers), and here is the 2014 update.


Below you can see the graph with the addition of the 84th and 85th Legislatures. Please note that we defined freshmen as new legislators sworn in during the first day or week of the regular session. Members who first served during a called session of a legislature are counted as freshmen members of that legislature. Excluded are members who were elected to a legislature but never sworn in due to death, resignation, or other factors.


You can see these and other figures on our member statistics page. Exact percentage of freshmen each session can be found here.



Percentage of freshmen in the Texas Legislature

Members Reunion Day, 2017

The large tent that appears on the south lawn of the Capitol near the end of every session is as reliable a marker of Spring as the arrival of the bluebonnets. The white canopy serves as the customary venue for the Members Reunion Day luncheon, part of a perennial celebration of House service that takes place this week on April 28.


All current and former House members are invited to the event, which begins with breakfast in the Capitol and concludes with barbecue under the big top. In between, current members will take a pause from their legislative duties to pay tribute to previous members and Speakers.



Setting aside time to honor the leadership is a long-standing tradition in the House of Representatives. With a few exceptions, Speaker's Day—as it was originally known—has been held every session since 1876.


For much of its history, Speaker’s Day was a congratulatory observance with a solitary focus. Common features of the early days included poetry, public tributes, and other forms of high praise. The popular “presentation of gifts” consisted of traditional keepsakes, such as watches, Bibles, cuff-buttons, and tea services.


In later years, popular music and good-natured satire accompanied the lofty language used in earlier celebrations. By the 1940s, lauding the Speaker with polished prose was out of fashion, and more colorful forms of expression made their way into the mix.


In 1943, for example, Representative Will Smith enchanted House members with his own clever couplet:

If I've grown old and there's silver in my hair.
Speaker Price Daniel put it there.

A choral club from Dallas regaled Speaker William Otey Reed in 1947 with a tender rendition of "Smoke Gets in Your Eyes."



Although the focus and name of the day have changed, Members Reunion Day perpetuates the same celebratory spirit and sense of common purpose as the earliest commemorations. A similar motivation is reflected in the Senate, which has its own tradition dating back to 2003.



This week the Senate will also take a break from the rigors of the legislative session to celebrate the service of former senators. Former Members Day, as it is called in the Senate, begins with a dinner on Wednesday, April 26. A ceremony honoring living and deceased former members will take place in the Senate chamber following breakfast on Thursday. Senators who served in the military will receive special recognition this session.


During the ceremony, former senators will be seated within the rail of the Senate, and the names of senators who have died since the last official gathering will be read. As a lasting tribute, copies of the Senate's biennial publication, A State of Remembrance, will be distributed to members.

Playing to Win with Rep. Bob Davis

This is the third installment in our occasional series, "Texas Treasures," highlighting some of the men and women who have served in the Texas Legislature. In previous posts, we featured Rep. Frank Calhoun and Sen. A.R. "Babe" Schwartz.


A lot of strong words have been used to describe former Rep. Bob Davis—intense, shrewd, wily, riveting. And with good reason. Words applied to lawmakers with ordinary resolve and conventional political skills are too meager for a man Texas Monthly once called: "beyond moderation . . . beyond classification . . . a player so avid he raises political gamesmanship to the intensity of a force of nature."1


Robert Eugene "Bob" Davis represented Dallas County in the House of Representatives from 1973-1983. During his tenure he served on the body's most powerful committees including: Calendars; Ways and Means, which he presided over for two sessions; and Regions, Compacts, and Districts, currently known as Redistricting. Davis was also a member of the House Insurance committee for three sessions, serving as chairman during the 65th Legislature.


Following his freshman session, Davis was a delegate to the Texas Constitutional Convention and a member of the Citizens' Conference on State Legislatures, a precursor to the National Conference of State Legislatures.


The power of Davis' political resolve was untested when he entered the race for a House seat in 1972. He was young, inexperienced, and virtually unknown to the voters of his district when he signed on as a last-minute recruit in a landmark election season.


"I was 30 years old at the time of filing. My wife was pregnant with our third child, and it wasn't a good time," Davis explained. "A lawyer I knew called me in June and told me the Republican candidate had to drop out. He said: 'We have called 39 people, and no one wants to run. Are you interested?' I said yes and became a replacement candidate."2


It didn't take long for Davis to prove himself a worthy replacement. His affinity for hard work and his status as a Republican worked to his advantage during the campaign—as did his lack of political experience. "I never really thought I would lose," Davis told the Irving Daily News after his stunning victory.3


The political odds were definitely in Davis' favor that year. Outrage over the Sharpstown Stock Fraud Scandal set the stage for a watershed election in 1972. And a court-ordered redistricting plan that required Dallas County to shift to single-member districts had provided a promising opening for a Republican candidate.4


Once committed, Davis seized the opportunity. In the notorious "year they threw the rascals out," he trounced a well-known incumbent and joined a corps of reform-minded freshmen who were sent to Austin to shake things up.


When the 63rd Legislature convened in 1973, almost half of the House members were first-time lawmakers, and "none were greener than I," Davis remarked.5


After taking office, Davis' knack for the political craft made it clear he was uniquely qualified to shake things up. Green or not, he was definitely a player.


Davis was featured in Texas Monthly's biennial assessment of best and worst lawmakers three times during his legislative career. Reflecting on his well-known status as a political heavyweight, Davis recalled two skills that were emphasized during freshman orientation: knowledge of the rules and personal relationships.


"My ideas were set when I first arrived. The exercise of power is really just an appreciation of knowledge—like the rules and the process—and personalities. There is nothing magical about it . . . I always had an affinity for the Rules of Procedure. My mastery of them helped me become a formidable opponent . . . It was also important to learn what was going on in the basement. I thought what we were doing was important, so I played hard, and I played to win."6


Davis authored over 150 pieces of legislation during his 10-year career, many of which dealt with complex aspects of insurance and tax law. Of particular significance were bills passed in 1977 and 1979 related to taxation of intangible property and valuation of agricultural land.7


At issue, particularly in cities like Irving which Davis represented, was whether large tracts of undeveloped land should be taxed based on productivity rather than fair market value. Davis argued in favor of switching to an "ag-use" valuation that would reduce the tax burden on farmers who were in danger of being forced to sell their land.


Opponents of the legislation were concerned the ultimate beneficiaries would be real estate developers and that cities would make up for lost revenue by raising taxes on homeowners. Acknowledging his bill drew no distinction between corporate and individual landowners, Davis made the case that promoting agricultural production was a worthy goal regardless of ownership.8 Davis and others successfully addressed homeowners' concerns in a constitutional amendment authored by Tim Von Dohlen. Considered together, the legislation provided a balanced solution to an acute problem and included tax relief for homeowners as well as farmers.


Altering tax policy is among the most contentious tasks a lawmaker can take on, and not every member is up to the challenge. In this case, Davis and his colleagues negotiated a tradeoff between urban and rural interests that saved cities from a huge tax increase and allowed agricultural land to remain in production.9


As a result of his efforts, Davis was named one of Texas Monthly's "ten best" and one of Texas Business magazine's "five best" legislators in 1979. It also burnished his credentials as a "peerless strategist" and a "genius" at the legislative process.10


Davis' expertise in addressing complex issues earned him several positions in state government after leaving the legislature in 1983. Three years after returning to his private law practice, Davis became director of budget and planning for Gov. Bill Clements, an experience he said was "fun and difficult."11 He also served on Governor Clements' taxation committee and was a member of the General Services Commission from 1989 to 1995.12


Davis practiced law for several years after completing his service in state government. Eventually, he eased out of litigation and focused on wills, estates, and regulatory matters. Davis is now enjoying what he calls "a comfortable period of doing a whole lotta nuthin'." 13


Looking back on his legislative service, Davis recalls: "The Legislature was a fascinating place for me . . . I didn't want to give up doing the job of a member, but I absolutely became tired of the process of getting elected." 14


Davis says he is not political now. He leaves that work to his son, Doug, and his daughter-in-law, Karina.


When we spoke in October, Davis and his wife were preparing for a trip to the Pacific Northwest. "We will be enjoying ourselves and following the trail of Lewis and Clark"15—a fitting journey of discovery for a "force of nature."


A collection of Representative Davis' legislative memorabilia is on display in the Legislative Reference Library.


1 Burka, Paul. "The Ten Best and the Ten Worst Legislators," Texas Monthly, July 1981, p. 108.

2 Davis, Bob, interview by Nancy Watson and Lindsay Wickham, 10/14/2016.

3 Wilson, Doris E. "Bob Davis: New State Rep Champing at the Bit to Start," Irving Daily News, 11/26/1972, p. 1.

4 Deaton, Charles. The Year They Threw the Rascals Out, Austin, TX: Shoal Creek Publishers, 1973, p. 151, 153.

5 Davis, Bob, 10/14/2016.

6 Ibid.

7 Legislative Reference Library, Legislative Archive System, accessed 1/16/2017.

8 McDaniel, Ann. "The 'Ag-Use' Tax: Does it Spell Relief?" Dallas Times-Herald, 5/6/1979.

9 Davis, Bob, 10/14/2016.

10 Burka, Paul, "The Ten Best and the Ten Worst Legislators," Texas Monthly, July 1979, p. 95.

11 Davis, Bob, 10/14/2016.

12 Legislative Reference Library, Texas Appointment System, accessed 1/17/2017.

13 Davis, Bob, 10/14/2016.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

Preview of the 85th Texas Legislature

Below you'll find a preview of the 85th Texas Legislature. New and returning members will be sworn in on January 10, 2017, the opening day of the regular session.
Membership statistics for previous sessions are available on the library's Member statistics page.

Summary of the 85th Legislature

Party House Senate Overall
Democrat 55 11 66
Republican 95 20 115
Total 150 31 181
Gender House Senate Overall
Women 29 8 37
Men 121 23 144
Total 150 31 181


Members not returning to the 85th Texas Legislature

Not Returning Replacement
Sen. Rodney Ellis (D) Borris Miles (D)
Sen. Kevin Eltife (R) Bryan Hughes (R)
Sen. Troy Fraser (R) Dawn Buckingham (R)
Rep. Jimmie Don Aycock (R) Scott Cosper (R)
Rep. Myra Crownover (R) Lynn Stucky (R)
Rep. Marsha Farney (R) Terry Wilson (R)
Rep. Allen Fletcher (R) Tom Oliverson (R)
Rep. Rick Galindo (R) Philip Cortez (D)
Rep. Patricia Harless (R) Kevin Roberts (R)
Rep. Bryan Hughes (R) Cole Hefner (R)
Rep. Jim Keffer (R) Mike Lang (R)
Rep. Susan King (R) Stan Lambert (R)
Rep. John Lujan (R) Tomas Uresti (D)
Rep. Marisa Márquez (D) Evelina Ortega (D)
Rep. Trey Martinez Fischer (D) Diana Arevalo (D)
Rep. Borris Miles (D) Shawn Thierry (D)
Rep. Doug Miller (R) Kyle Biedermann (R)
Rep. Elliott Naishtat (D) Gina Hinojosa (D)
Rep. John Otto (R) Ernest Bailes (R)
Rep. Gilbert Peña (R) Mary Ann Perez (D)
Rep. Debbie Riddle (R) Valoree Swanson (R)
Rep. Kenneth Sheets (R) Victoria Neave (D)
Rep. David Simpson (R) Jay Dean (R)
Rep. Wayne Smith (R) Briscoe Cain (R)
Rep. Stuart Spitzer (R) Lance Gooden (R)
Rep. Laura Thompson (I) Barbara Gervin-Hawkins (D)
Rep. Scott Turner (R) Justin Holland (R)
Rep. Sylvester Turner (D) Jarvis Johnson (D)
Rep. Molly White (R) Hugh Shine (R)

Frank Calhoun Reflects on a Half-Century Under the Dome

This is the second installment in our new series, "Texas Treasures," highlighting some of the men and women who have served in the Texas Legislature. In our first post, we featured Sen. A.R. "Babe" Schwartz.


Frank Calhoun comically attributes much of his success in life to the fact that he "keeps showing up." 


Frank Calhoun Rep. Frank Calhoun, 61st Legislature (1969).

And show up he has. Frank represented Taylor County in the House of Representatives from 1967-1975, and he has been a reliable presence in the Capitol ever since. Frank announced his retirement early this year after being active in Texas politics for over 50 years.


Frank was a law student at the University of Texas when he landed his first job in the Capitol in 1957. As an Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms, he was responsible for distributing messages to House offices and performing other clerical tasks. But mostly he sat on a stool in a dark elevator with a law book in hand, an experience he shares with other former lawmakers


"It was simple. People would get on the elevator, and I would punch the button." It wasn't glamorous, but being able to study while he worked was a great benefit. "It never occurred to me that one day I might be elected to the Legislature. I just wanted to get through school and become a lawyer."


After Frank passed the bar exam he went home to Abilene and became a lawyer. His interest and involvement in his community naturally extended to Democratic politics.


In 1966, when redistricting created an opportunity for someone from Abilene to be elected to the House of Representatives, Frank was recruited. "Four men called me to a meeting over a bottle of single malt and told me I was going to run. They agreed to take care of raising all the money. All I had to do was get elected."


During the last of Frank's four terms in the House, he was selected as a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, which attempted to redraft a new constitution for Texas. The Constitution, he explained, "should reflect the contract between the people and their government." Instead it was a "statutory tangle." Regrettably, the Con-Con's revision failed by three votes. "That was the culmination of my legislative service and one of the most significant experiences."


Frank's involvement in politics continued after he left the Legislature and joined the Houston law firm of Liddell, Sapp, Zivley, Hill & LaBoon where he specialized in legislative and administrative matters.


Frank remembers his time in the Legislature as a very satisfying and interesting experience. Serious moments were frequently interspersed with humor and fun. "I got to know people from all over the state . . . Relationships develop. Periods of great stress forge friendships that never fade."


Several of the friendships Frank forged during those years are celebrated annually at Hilary Doran's ranch near Del Rio. Hilary extended the first invitation in 1967, and his friends have been showing up every November since. Frank expects this year's meeting of "The Extinguished" to be the last in a treasured tradition.


Frank has only missed one Doran Ranch meeting in 48 years. Most members of the group have been former legislators or legislative staff, several of whom have died in recent years.

The first invitation included wives, but it quickly became a "men's deal." "There was hunting, drinking, and carrying on . . . not a lot there for a woman to enjoy." Now the activities are pretty much limited to cigar smoking and dominos. "The guys stopped bringing their guns several years ago," Frank reminisced. "We are no longer angry at the deer."


Del Rio group Back row, left to right: Rayford Price, L.E. "Lee" Arnold, Dick Callahan, Walter Fisher, Glenn Biggs, Frank Calhoun, Guy Floyd
Front row, left to right: Charlie Schnabel, Hilary Doran, Neil Caldwell, Bill Finck


Frank Calhoun Frank Calhoun and Hilary Doran at Doran Ranch, November 2005.


 Deceased members include: Bob Johnson, Don Cavness, Ed Howard, Jim Wardle, Jim Kaster, and Randy Pendleton. Not pictured are: Glenn Biggs, Dick Cory, David Crews, and Grant Jones. Bottom photo: The lodge at Doran Ranch.


Senate Presidents Pro Tempore

A newly revised and expanded list of Senate Presidents Pro Tempore is now available on the library website. The page provides a list of legislators who have held this position, as well as a narrative history highlighting the changing nature of the position through the years.
As outlined in the Texas Constitution, the Senate President Pro Tem performs the duties of the Lieutenant Governor in his or her absence. Senate tradition also calls for the President Pro Tempore to be sworn in as "Governor for a Day", a 60+-year tradition that includes ceremonies and celebrations honoring the President Pro Tem and showcasing his or her district. 
During the 84th Texas Legislature in 2015, Sen. Juan "Chuy" Hinojosa served as  Senate President Pro Tem for the Regular Session, and Sen. Kevin Eltife was elected at the close of the Regular Session for the legislative interim.
Did you know?
Before 1876, there was no constitutional requirement for electing a Senate President Pro Tem at the beginning and close of each session. Instead, Art. V, Sec. 13 of the 1845 Texas Constitution provided that:
"Whenever the If the lieutenant governor shall...die, resign, or be absent from the State during the recess of the legislature, it shall be the duty of the secretary of State to convene the Senate for the purpose of choosing a president for the time being."
Sen. Robert Guinn, Senate President
Pro Tem for the 9th - 11th Legislatures
Sen. Judith Zaffirini. First Latina President
Pro Tempore and first Latina
Governor of the Day (75th Legislature, 1997).

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